Genel · Reflection

12 Principles of Multimedia Leaning, Richard E. Mayer

1. Coherence Principle – People learn better when extraneous words, pictures and sounds are excluded rather than included. When we prepare a Powerpoint presentation, we should give the target information simply. We should avoid including some irrelevant pictures, sounds, or extra sentences (or words).

2. Signaling Principle – People learn better when cues that highlight the organization of the essential material are added. Highlight materials are essential. They receive attention. So, when we prepare a presentation, to add arrows, higlight important words with various colors or adding some “attention” pictures are necesssary; so, we can signalize what we aim to teach. But, these materials shouldn’t be extraneous. Important informations only.

3. Redundancy Principle – People learn better from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration and on-screen text. While we are preparing a Powerpoint presentation, we should avoid adding redundant on-screen texts below the picture, and we should explain this media with using carefully selected words and phrases.

4. Spatial Contiguity Principle – People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. For example, when we prepare a Powerpoint presentation about fruits, we shouldn’t give the fruit’s picture first, and then the name of it. We should present them in the same slide. [A photo of banana, and “banana” below.]

5. Temporal Contiguity Principle – People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. This means that a graphic that is the major subject of text should not be physically separated from the text. So, when we prepare a Powerpoint presentation; for example, we should give a hand picture, and add every single finger’s name on fingers. They shouldn’t be seperated from each other. It limits “eye-shifting”.

6. Segmenting Principle – People learn better from a multimedia lesson is presented in user-paced segments rather than as a continuous unit. When we preapare a Powerpoint presentation about the body’s sections, we should give, for example, the “head” first, and give the shoulders, thorax etc. We segment the body, and present this way. Not as a continuous unit.

7. Pre-Training Principle – People learn better from a multimedia lesson when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts. While we are preparing a Powerpoint presentation about nature, for example, we should present the key words first, such as “leaf, tree, green” etc.

8. Modality Principle – People learn better from graphics and narrations than from animation and on-screen text.

We should use narrations with graphics rather than on-screen texts. Reading alone is not helpful for learning. We should add some videos in our Powerpoint presentation.

9. Multimedia Principle – People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. For exaple, when we prepare a Powerpoint presentation about abstract concepts, such as mathematics, reading alone will not be helpful for the learners. So, we should add multimedia in it.

10. Personalization Principle – People learn better from multimedia lessons when words are in conversational style rather than formal style. The learners will learn better, when we use a friendly, human voice rather than a formal style.

11. Voice Principle – People learn better when the narration in multimedia lessons is spoken in a friendly human voice rather than a machine voice. We should record our own voice, for example, when we tell a story. Using machine voice will not be helpful for learning.

12. Image Principle – People do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the speaker’s image is added to the screen. For better learning, we can use multimedia such as images, videos etc. But, the images which we are using shouldn’t be blury. We should use carefully selected images for our Powerpoint presentations.

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