Question 1: How can we integrate technology into our teaching in the light of TPACK Model?
Answer: The article begins with a brief introduction to the complex nature of teaching. TPACK framework is offered for teacher knowledge in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: content, pedagogy, and technology. It is described how these bodies of knowledge interact, in abstract, and in practice, to produce the type of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology in the classroom.
Question 2: Why do the authors state “teaching with technology is a wicked problem”?
Answer: Technology integration has often been considered a kind of problemsolving, the goal of which is to find the appropriate technological solutions to pedagogical problems. However, matters are not this clearcut. Integrating technology in the classroom is a complex and illstructured problem involving the convoluted interaction of multiple factors, with few hard and fast rules that apply across contexts and cases. One fruitful way of thinking about the complex problem of teaching with technology is to view it as a “wicked problem”. Rittel and Webber argued that wicked problems have incomplete, contradictory and changing requirements. Solutions to wicked problems are often difficult to realize (and maybe even recognize) because of complex interdependences among a large number of contextually bound variables.
Question 3: How do the authors define “functional fixedness”? Give an example from the article.
Answer: Cognitive scientists use the phrase “functional fixedness” to describe the manner in which the ideas we hold about an object’s functioning can inhibit our ability to use the object for a different function. Functional fixedness often stands in the way of creative uses of technologies. Overcoming this is essential for the intelligent and creative application of technology for learning. For example, a whiteboard has certain constraints and affordances: it is heavy and difficult to move, yet it is easy to write on and erase, and it can function as a public “writing space” to share ideas with others. These constraints and affordances, however, do not necessarily determine how a whiteboard can be used. The manner in which a whiteboard is used in a classroom as opposed to a science lab clearly indicates that the function of a whiteboard is determined very much by the context in which it is used. Similarly, although email is a tool for communication, it can be used to aid creative writing, and PowerPoint, a presentation tool, can be used as a medium for artistic creativity. Thus, creative uses of technology require us to go beyond this “functional fixedness” so that we can innovatively repurpose existing tools toward pedagogical ends.