1) Firstly, concrete referent for ideas are provided by visuals. Words do not usually look/sound like the thing they stand for, to the thing they represent. Visuals can also motivate learners by attracting them to the subject, holding their attention, and generating emotional responses . Visuals can simplify information that is hard to understand. Finally, visuals give some learners to a chance to understand visually what they might miss verbally when accompanying spoken or written verbal information they present that information in a different modality.
2) Visual literacy is the ability of interpreting visual messages accurately/fluently, and it also refers creating such messages.
3) Input Strategies? They help learners to decode, or “read “, visuals proficiently by practicing visual analysis skills. Output Strategies? They help learners to encode, or “write,” visuals to express themselves and communicate with others.
4) Developmental Effect: Before age twelwe, children tend to interpret visuals section by section rather than as a whole. But, older students tend to summarize the whole scene and report a conclusion about the meaning of the picture. Therefore, abstract symbols or a series of still pictures whose relationship is not clearly explained may fail to communicate as intended with younger viewers. On the other hand, highly realistic visuals may distract younger children. “As a child gets older, he becomes more capable of attending selectively to those features of an instructional presentation that have the greatest potential for enhancing his learning of desired information.” Cultural Effect: Different cultural groups may perceive visual materials in different ways. Visual Preference: People do not necessarily learn best from the kinds of pictures they prefer to look at. While selecting visuals, teachers should make appropriate choices between the sorts of visuals that are preferred and those that are most effective.
5) Ability to sequence which means arranging ideas in logical order is an extremely important factor in verbal literacy, especially in the ability to communicate in writing.
6) Good visual designs aim to achieve to ensure legibility, help the viewer to quickly see the message, get the viewer actively engaged with your message, and focus attention on some of the key points.
7) ///Visual Elements: The type of visual selected for a particular situation highly depends on the learning task. Visual symbols can be subdivided into three categories: Realistic, Analogic and Organizational Visuals. Realistic Visuals show the actual object under study. Although it may be assumed that effective communication is always best served by the most realistic visual available, this is not necessary. That is, either too much or too little realism may affect achievement adversely. Secondly, Analogic Visuals convey a concept or topic by showing something else, and implying a similarity. For example; teaching about electiricity flow by showing water flowing in series and parellel pipes. Finally, Organizational Visuals include flowcharts, graphs, maps, schematics, and classification charts.
///Verbal Elements: Most displays incorporate some type of verbal information in addition to visuals. Letter Style: The style of the lettering should be consistent and should harmonize with the other elements of visual. ///Appealing Elements: Visuals have no chance of having and effect unless they capture and holds the viewers’ attention. Surprise: People pay attention as long as they are getting novel stimuli or new information. They tune out when the message becomes monotous. Texture: Texture is a characteristic of three-dimensional objects and materials. It can convey a clearer idea of the subject to the viewer by involving the sense of touch. Interaction: Viewers can be asked to respond to visual displays by manipulating materials on the display, perhaps to answer questions raised in the display.
8) Alignment: Pictorial elements should be aligned with reference to the edges of the display. An irregularly shaped element can be aligned by mentally surrounding it with a rectangle. Shape: Arrangements of elements in a familiar geometric pattern, such as a circle, makes a display easier to decode. Rule of Thirds: According to the “rule of thirds”, the most important elements should appear near the intersections of the lines dividing the visual into thirds. Balance: A psychological sense of equilibrium, or balance, is achieved when the “weight” of the elements in a display is equally distributed on each side of an axis, either horizontally or vertically or both.
9) ?Proximity: Putting related elements close together and moving unrelated elements apart. ?Directionals: If you want viewers to read the display in a particular sequence or focus on some particular element, you can use various other devices/directionals to direct attention. ?Figure – Ground Contrast: Dark figures show up best on light grounds and light figures show up best on dark grounds. ?Consistency: The more often the arrangement conforms to these rules, the more viewers trust the rules. Everytime the arrangements breaks the rules, viewers have to expend mental energy deciding whether this is a deliberate exception or whether they need to revise the rules. You enhance consistency when you place similar elements in similar locations, use the same text treatment for headlines, and use the same color scheme throughout the series of displays.
10) Colored elements in a monochrome display will draw the eyes. A color repeated in different parts of a display tends to show a relationship between those parts. The more extreme the color is, the more likely it will attract viewers’ attention.